Tag Archives: time

A Not So Simple Look At Relativity — Post by Michael J. Findley

3 book covers on time
The importance of the theory of relativity is the religious conclusions rammed down our throats by religious bigots. This strong language is necessary to understand the unyielding priesthood these men have erected. These people have convinced themselves and many others that they are open-minded, kind and gentle. In their world, however, disagreements are only tolerated within their general framework of their view of the universe.

The first tenet of their religion is that the current universe and the way it operates can be examined to discover all truths. The second tenet of their religion is that the universe is at least billions of years old, if not eternal. The third tenet is the necessary and important conclusion of the first two. The entire human race is an infinitesimally small and insignificant part of an eternal, or nearly eternal cosmos. The only significance anyone can ever have is the decisions we choose to call significant. At one time the concept of God creating the universe was permitted, but even that kind of a God is now intolerable. Everything is relative and the guardians (as they were to do in Plato’s Republic) tell us what is good and how to live in order to best serve society.

Though it took longer than predicted, 1984 has arrived. The uniforms are blue jeans. Newspeak is a combination of psychobabble and pseudoscience jargon. All their conclusions claim a basis in relativity. In reality, Einstein’s theory of general relativity has no relationship with moral relativism. The principles of general relativity are only observable on the cosmic level. Personal relationships, physical as well as personal, do not use relativity. We are all in the same co-ordinate system.

The concept of a space/time continuum is essential to understand general relativity. Time is just as much a dimension as space. The universal constant is the speed of light. Time can be altered in two ways. The first is the well-known Twins Paradox. If you are not familiar with the Twins Paradox, the 1956 juvenile story Time for the Stars by Robert Heinlein is an interesting introduction. A pair of twins have telepathic abilities which are not limited by distance. Because of this ability, one twin is placed on a spacecraft with near light speed and heads for the stars while the other twin remains on earth to receive and relay messages As the mass of the starship approaches the speed of light, the relative time on the starship slows down. Both twins experience a “normal” life with what they perceive to be a normal timeframe. As the twin on the spaceship travels and the twin on earth ages and the telepathic responsibilities are transferred first to his twin’s daughter on earth, then his granddaughter and finally his great granddaughter. By the end of the book, the traveling twin has aged only a few years while time on earth has gone through decades. If you are not familiar with the book, there is a somewhat cute ending. This Twins Paradox concept is a frequent topic in space travel discussions, because people and spaceships have mass.

According to the theory of general relativity, an object with mass will have its perception of time altered as it approaches the speed of light. Since the amount of energy needed to propel a spacecraft at the actual speed of light is infinite, actual light speed is impossible. But as mass approaches the speed of light, time will seem to slow down those in other co-ordinate systems. A spacecraft near the speed of light will have normal time to those on board the spacecraft. Those on the spacecraft would view those on earth as racing around furiously as time raced by. Those on earth will view those on the spacecraft as moving in extreme slow motion.

Since we are unaware of any actual starships, our real, daily experience is actually reversed. On page 43 of Stephen Hawking’s book A Brief History of Time there is a picture of a tower with two clocks, one in the base and one in the top. The clock at the top runs faster than the one in the base. “Another prediction of general relativity is that time should appear to run slower near a massive body like the earth.” He takes several pages to explain this, but the important point is that satellite navigation systems which fail to account for this time difference caused by general relativity can be off by miles. Massless particles, such as light photons, traveling completely outside of gravitational fields, such as between galaxies, could easily travel at the speed of light yet travel for millions or even billions of years while only brief periods of time, perhaps only seconds, transpire on earth. The same principles apply to any electromagnetic energy. This important aspect of general relativity is rarely, if ever mentioned.

The reason for this sin of omission is explained by Dr. Russell Humphries in his work, Starlight and Time. The idea that the universe is billions of light years across and therefore the earth is millions or billions of years old is the single greatest deception in the secular humanist’s arsenal. They frequently say that a look at distant galaxies is a look at the beginning of the universe because the light we see left those galaxies just after the big bang. Relativity is ignored when it is convenient.

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Christianity, Science and True Knowledge

Not all knowledge is true science. Paul wrote to Timothy in I Timothy 6:20 that he should be on guard against and stay away from those who used “oppositions of science falsely so called. ” This is one of the more interesting references in the Bible to false science. He was telling Timothy to stay away from people who opposed the Word of God with false knowledge. Our lives are brief and we should not waste time studying things which are not true. Since true religion is the foundation or basis of true science, true religion is where our studies should begin if we are to understand true science. The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom (Psalm 111:10). The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge: but fools despise wisdom and instruction. (Proverbs 1:7) The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom: and knowledge of the holy is understanding (Proverbs 9:10).

The following is a basic overview of Christian doctrines. It is not what anyone claims that the Bible says, but what it actually says. These are the foundations of true science. Without these foundations, a person is not studying, teaching or practicing science. He is a believer in a false religion, studying, teaching and practicing mythology.

Cosmology

The material universe had a beginning. God spoke it into existence. God used His Son and His Spirit to make the universe.

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made (John 1:1-3).

God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power (Hebrews 1:1-3).

Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear (Hebrews 11:3).

In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth (Genesis 1:1).

God is eternal.

Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God (Psalm 90:2).

Lord, thou hast been our dwellingplace in all generations. Before the mountains were brought forth, or ever thou hadst formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting to everlasting, thou art God (Psalm 93:2).

God is holy.

For I am the LORD that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy (Leviticus 11:45).

But as he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conversation; Because it is written, Be ye holy; for I am holy (I Peter 1:15, 16).

God created the material universe very good. That is, without sin (holy) and good for man.

And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day (Genesis 1:31).

God created the material universe out of nothing.

Thus saith the LORD, thy redeemer, and he that formed thee from the womb, I am the LORD that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone; that spreadeth abroad the earth by myself (Isaiah 44:24).

The portion of Jacob is not like them: for he is the former of all things; and Israel is the rod of his inheritance: The LORD of hosts [armies] is his name (Jeremiah 10:16)

The portion of Jacob is not like them: for he is the former of all things; and Israel is the rod of his inheritance: The LORD of hosts is his name (Jeremiah 51:19)

All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made (John 1:3).

God that made the world and all things therein, seeing that he is Lord of heaven and earth, dwelleth not in temples made with hands; Neither is worshipped with men’s hands, as though he needed any thing, seeing he giveth to all life, and breath, and all things (Acts 17:24,25).

Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear (Hebrews 11:3).

Anthropology (The Study of Man)

And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them (Genesis 1:26-27).

Man was created by a direct act of God.

And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul (Genesis 2:7).

Then the LORD God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone; I will make him a helper suitable for him ” (Genesis 2:18, NASB, NIV).

And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man (Genesis 2:21, 22).

Man was created without sin.

And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day (Genesis 1:31).

And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed (Genesis2:25).

By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned (Romans 5:12).

Sin entered the universe through Adam’s choice.

And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die (Genesis 2:15-17).

And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou? And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself. And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat? And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat. And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field; In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. And Adam called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living. Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them (Genesis 3:8-21).

The result of Adam’s sin is death.

By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned (Romans 5:12).

The curse of sin is on the entire material universe.

For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now (Romans 8:22).

Because we are born sinners, we are powerless to heal the curse of sin.

For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God (Romans 3:23).

We have before proved both Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under sin; As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one: There is none that understandeth, there is none that seeketh after God. They are all gone out of the way, they are together become unprofitable; there is none that doeth good, no, not one. Their throat is an open sepulchre; with their tongues they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips: Whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness: Their feet are swift to shed blood: Destruction and misery are in their ways: And the way of peace have they not known: There is no fear of God before their eye (Romans 3:9-18).

Christology (The Study of Jesus Christ)

Jesus was born of a virgin according to the prophets.

Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us (Matthew 1:22,23).

Jesus the Messiah was born without sin.

For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him (2 Corinthians 5:21).

Jesus the Messiah led a sinless life.

Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession. For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin (Hebrews 4:14,15)

God provided atonement for the sin of all mankind through the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection from the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive (I Corinthians 15:21,22)


Time

The existence of the material universe is both finite and brief. The geneologies in Genesis are consistent and clearly teach that the earth was created shortly before 4,000 BC. The year 2010 in a modern western calendar corresponds to the Jewish calendar year 5770, counted from Creation. Jesus Christ will return and the material world will be destroyed as a judgment for sin.

Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away. Matthew (24:35).

But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night; in the which the heavens shall pass away with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat, the earth also and the works that are therein shall be burned up (2 Peter 3:10).

And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them (Revelation 20:11).

And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away; and there was no more sea (Revelation 21:1).

Any who do not believe these simple, obvious doctrines willingly bring judgment on themselves. Like those on the Titanic who refused to board the lifeboats, they will not understand reality until it is too late. As Peter said, they “willingly are ignorant. ”

Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts, And saying, Where is the promise of his coming? For since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation. For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished: But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men (2 Peter 3:3-7).

Unlike the record of Jesus the Messiah, the idea that the universe had an Intelligent Designer has three forms of testimony outside the Scriptures. The first two are scientific. First is the fact that no basic law of physics contradicts anything in the Bible. The second testimony is the millions of observed scientific phenomena. The last form of testimony consists of other ancient records.

True science is not technology. Technology is the application of scientific principles to fabricate material objects. No known aspect or instance of technology contradicts any doctrine in the Bible.

True science is the belief (accepting as true after examining the facts, a legal term) that the material world was created in a point of time, that the material world will end, that each and every person has a purpose and will be judged for the decisions he makes in this life. True science acknowledges the limitations of material measurements and analysis. True science acknowledges that science is finite and that the most important human questions cannot be answered by science. True science acknowledges that the ancient world of 5,000 years ago was totally and completely different than the world we know today. The present is not the key to the past. True science acknowledges that the ancient world underwent at least one worldwide global catastrophe within the last 5000 years.

True science acknowledges that the surface of the earth that we see today was produced catastrophically. True science acknowledges that each historic document from the beginning of time was written for a purpose at the time it was written. Though technology evolves, such as the evolution of the airplane, there has never been any evolutionary development of civilization. True science acknowledges that the only legitimate use of the word evolution is technological, driven by human intelligence, such the evolution of the automobile, the printing industry or organized sports. True science acknowledges the scientific fact that there has never been any scientific evidence for any form of biological evolution.

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Important Points Which Must Be Covered in Education


I. The Bible is the authoritative foundation for science, arts, literature, math, history, geography, geology, physics, chemistry, medicine, biology and all other academic disciplines. Anything which contradicts the Word of God either directly or by ignoring it, is in error.

II. The Material universe was created out of the non material world.

III. The Original Creation was water.

IV. God worked on the first six days of creation. That is, God supernaturally used power that is not being used today. God’s creative power cannot be measured with scientific instruments. There were no human observers.

V. All men have souls. Both men and animals are more than material creatures.

VI. There is good and evil.

VII. Adam was created good but by his own choice became evil. This sin nature is passed to all men.

VIII. Time is part of the original creation. There was no time before God created. The entire universe is less than seven thousand years old.

IX. Four rivers flowed out of the garden in (not of) Eden. The only way this could be possible is that the entire earth was only one continent.

X. All technology, arts and science were fully developed soon after creation, before the flood.

XI. Noah built his ark on a mountain. The draft of his ark was fifteen cubits. When the ark floated off the mountain, every mountain on earth had to be covered. It also means that the highest antediluvian mountain on earth was low enough to build an ark on. It had to be much lower than Kilamanjaro or Mount Everest today.

XII. Men immediately after the flood were technologically advanced. They had ships which could navigate throughout the entire earth.

XIII. Nimrod and the tower of Babel is a true historical event.

XIV. Genealogies are accurate.

XV. The table of nations is accurate.

XVI. Ancient documents which support the Scriptures are accurate. Ancient documents which do not support the Scriptures are in error.

XVII. The Ice Age was immediately after the flood and probably ended while Joseph was in Egypt. This is a time after the flood of worldwide geologic upheaval. The great mountains were created suddenly at this time.

XVIII. Though our modern Gregorian calendar is inaccurate, Adam was thrown out of the garden about 4000 BC and the Exodus took place about 1446 BC.

XIX. Written documents are the records of observers and therefore accurate scientific records. Artifacts unearthed by modern scientists have many problems and are of secondary value.

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The Religion of Physics I: What Is Physics?

“I put a lot of effort into writing A Briefer History [of Time] at a time when I was critically ill with pneumonia because I think that it’s important for scientists to explain their work, particularly in cosmology. This now answers many questions once asked of religion.”1

“What I have done is to show that it is possible for the way the universe began to be determined by the laws of science. In that case, it would not be necessary to appeal to God to decide how the universe began. This doesn’t prove that there is no God, only that God is not necessary.”2

“There is a fundamental difference between religion, which is based on authority and science, which is based on observation and reason. Science will win, because it works.”3

“So Einstein was wrong when he said, ‘God does not play dice.’ Consideration of black holes suggests, not only that God does play dice, but that he sometimes confuses us by throwing them where they can’t be seen.”4

Stephen Hawking’s A Brief History of Time is modern Physics. Only the Bible and Shakespeare have sold more copies in the nonfiction books category. The deep disagreements Stephen Hawking has with Albert Einstein’s meaning of general relativity are actually religious disagreements. Before reading A Brief History of Time you should grasp Albert Einstein’s understanding of general relativity. A clear and simple work is the 1938 The Evolution of Physics by Albert Einstein and Leopold Infeld.

They take us to 221-B Baker Street where Sherlock Holmes ponders the great mystery of the universe. How do we go about solving this great mystery? What tools does Sherlock Holmes have available? How should he use them? What clews are available?

Since both Albert Einstein and Leopold Infeld were born and raised as German Jews, English was a foreign language to them. The book is filled with archaic British spellings, such as clew for clue, which will either annoy or amuse you. While their writing style requires some thought, their perspective helps us think through some complicated issues. This book has no formulas or mathematics. The illustrations are very simple and the picture plates are black and white. This three hundred-page book only has four chapters.

“There comes a time where the investigator has collected all of the facts he needs for at least some phase of his problem. These facts often seem quite strange, incoherent, and wholly unrelated. The great detective, however, realizes that no further investigation is needed at the moment, and only pure thinking will lead to a correlation of the facts collected.”5 Sherlock Holmes hones in on the problem of defining motion. Because of the concepts of point, line, curve and vector developed by the ancient Greeks, we have the tools to analyze motion. Einstein and Infeld then expand to the rest of Euclid’s two-dimensional geometry. These ancient concepts are the foundation of modern physics.

The opening chapter, “The Rise of the Mechanical View,” covers almost 2000 years of thought, from Greece to the kinetic theory of matter developed by Sir Isaac Newton. According to Einstein, Newton was the most important physicist prior to the twentieth century. He wrote down two ideas which define classical physics. The formula for gravity allows for the prediction of mass, velocity and direction of objects. Even more important than the formula for gravity is the concept of inertia.

The Ancients, including the Babylonians, the Egyptians and the Chinese, built massive stone structures which required advanced math. Whatever tools they developed are lost. The Greeks rediscovered some of these tools and their math is written down. In Einstein’s book, they developed physics in what we call three-dimensional space, but only used two dimensions. Galileo, Copernicus and Kepler used three-dimensional physics in astronomy. The next step was developed by Newton. The mathematical basis of Calculus was written down by Newton, though the theory of Calculus goes back to Egypt.

The value of a theory is its ability to make a prediction. Though gravity was known and understood since Adam, Newton was the first to understand that gravity is field-related to mass and to derive formulas for the relationship between gravity and mass. With these formulas, careful observations of objects such as planets, moons, comets, asteroids, etc. can be used to predict their orbits, determine their mass and calculate their relationships to one another. These gravitational formulas depend on a new discovery by Newton, inertia. He also wrote down the two laws for inertia.

His laws for inertia, building on the mathematics of the Greeks and Arabs and extending via gravity into the motion of heavenly bodies, depend on what Einstein calls absolute time and absolute space. That is, everyone views the same actions and reactions the same way at the same time. For the way the average person views the universe, this is true.

Newton even had a theory of relativity. Newton’s example uses a man with a ball bouncing up and down on a table with two observers. One man is traveling with the table and bouncing ball. To the man in motion with the table, the ball appears to be bouncing straight up and down. The other man is stationary and observes the other man, the table and the ball bouncing up and down to have an additional motion which the man traveling with the ball and table do not observe. Newton believed that even though the two men observed different motion of the ball, time was absolutely the same for both men. However, more precise instruments began to find problems with this.

The next chapter, “The Decline of the Mechanical View,” begins with these words: “The following pages contain a dull report of some very simple experiments. The account will be boring not only because the description of experiments is uninteresting in comparison with their actual performance, but also because the meaning of the experiments does not become apparent until theory makes it so. Our purpose is to furnish a striking example of the role of theory in physics.”6

This entire chapter is devoted to the problems of mechanical physics and is theoretical. Though the authors use humor and clever illustrations, it is a boring topic. It is also very necessary to properly understand the rest of the book. What are heat and light? What is magnetism? What is electricity? What is gravity? Are they energy? Are they properties of the substance emitting them? Do they have mass? The answers to these questions require a new examination of the facts and new theories to explain the facts.

The next chapter, “Field, Relativity,” begins about the time of Newton, so it covers much of the same time period as the previous chapter with a great shift in perspective. “The Decline of the Mechanical View” examines the problems and failed attempts to explain the universe with the mechanical view. “Field, Relativity” abandons the mechanical view and proposes different solutions. Modern readers will be more familiar with the term classical physics to describe what this book calls the mechanical view and field theory.

Field theory is better known today as electromagnetism. Field theory deals with the forces between neutrons, protons and electrons, rather than the matter made by atomic particles. Understanding the relationship between electromagnetism and gravity was the “death knell” for strictly Newtonian physics and the need for a new approach.

Though many men before him worked on the problem before he tackled it, Albert Einstein was the first to work out the math of special relativity. The real import of The Evolution of Physics is the distinctions between special and general relativity in Einstein’s own words. These distinctions are written in terms as simple and easy to understand as is possible.

Albert Einstein attempted to solve these problems with the mechanical view by using the mechanical view. His failure resulted in the theory of special relativity. He illustrates special relativity with a man in an idealized elevator falling forever towards the earth. He releases both a handkerchief and a ball. The elevator, the man, the handkerchief and the ball are all falling at the same rate. Inertia is real to the man because he is part of the closed system. Time, as well as gravity, is the same for all four because they are all part of what Einstein calls the same co-ordinate system (CS). Therefore, time is part of that CS. This relationship between this particular CS and time Einstein calls the space-time continuum. To the observer inside this CS, it is not much different from classical or mechanical relativity, except that time is added as part of space. It recognizes, however, that there are other co-ordinate systems existing at the same time as your CS.

General relativity, which Einstein worked on for years after publishing special relativity, is looking at the first CS (the man in the falling elevator) from a viewpoint outside of the elevator, an entirely different CS. Now time is moving at two different speeds. Time slows down with greater gravity and each CS has its own gravity. Now there is no inertia, only apparent inertia. Gravity warps time. Objects, such as photons of light, traveling outside of any gravitational field, such as between stars or galaxies will travel much greater distances in the same amount of time as an object in a gravitational field, such as on earth. The speed of light is a constant, but the time it is traveling is not.

Too much information, too quickly? This is why Einstein uses so many illustrations and spends many pages laying the foundation.

The chapter Quanta clearly shows differences between classical and modern physics. In the serious rift between the quanta physicists, such as Steven Hawking and the classical physicists, this brief chapter is a very fair presentation of the quanta position by a classical physicist. Modern physicists regard Albert Einstein’s views as classical and opposed to modern quantum mechanics. That is certainly the position of Stephen Hawking.

Newton wrote a theory of relativity which is called classical or mechanical today. The way Einstein describes classical relativity is a ball bouncing up and down on a table in a moving train. To the man on the train moving with the train, the ball seems to be bouncing straight up and down. But to a man standing on a platform looking into the window of the train, the ball is taking a zigzag path as it moves with the train. Both observers, however, use the same clock and the same space (CS, Co-ordinate System). This led to some problems with the results of several experiments with light.

“Today scientists describe the universe in terms of two basic partial theories – the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. They are the great intellectual achievements of the first half of this century. The general theory of relativity describes the force of gravity and the large-scale structure of the universe, that is, the structure on scales from only a few miles to as large as a million million million million (1 with twenty zeros after it) miles, the size of the observable universe. Quantum mechanics, on the other hand, deals with phenomena on extremely small scales, such as a millionth of a millionth of an inch. Unfortunately, however, these two theories are known to be inconsistent with each other. They cannot both be correct.”7

“However, we still use Newton’s theory for all practical purposes because the difference between its predictions and those of general relativity is very small in the situations that we normally deal with. (Newton’s theory also has the great advantage that it is much simpler to work with than Einstein’s!).”8

Einstein’s oft-repeated statement God did not play dice with the universe showed at least a deistic belief. As Einstein grew older, he seems to have returned to some form of liberal Judaism. He also stated quite often that the most miraculous part of the universe was that it made sense. The variety and complexity of the universe should result in chaos, not order. General Relativity to Einstein was an astronomical increase in complexity and order of the Universe.

“Modern” or “Progressive” physicists represented by Stephen Hawking see General Relativity as an infinite universe with life becoming insignificant. “The human race is just a chemical scum on a moderate-sized planet, orbiting around a very average star in the outer suburb of one among a hundred billion galaxies. We are so insignificant that I can’t believe the whole universe exists for our benefit. That would be like saying that you would disappear if I closed my eyes.”9

Stephen Hawking disdains religion, because religion “is based on authority” while science “is based on observation and reason.”3 The only honest scientific answer is that is this statement is a lie. The entire basis of the religion of modern physics is Stephen Hawking’s Papal pronouncement, “The life we have on Earth must have spontaneously generated itself. It must therefore be possible for life to exist spontaneously elsewhere in the universe.”10

Spontaneous generation is anti-science. Every attempt to generate life has failed. Spontaneous generation is pure religious belief without a shred of any kind of evidence, scientific, circumstantial or hearsay. It is a desperate belief in the ridiculous in order to ignore the scientific evidence.

1 A Brief History of Time Chapter 8 1988, 1996, 2001

2 Der Spiegel (17 October 1988)

3 Interview with Diane Sawyer, as quoted in “Stephen Hawking on Religion: ‘Science Will Win'” on ABC World News (07 June 2010)

4 During the 1994 exchange with Penrose, transcribed in The Nature of Space and Time (1996) by Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose, p. 26 and also in “The Nature of Space and Time” (online text)

5 The Evolution of Physics by Albert Einstein and Leopold Infeld, 1938, 1966, 2007, 2008, p. 4.

6 The Evolution of Physics by Albert Einstein and Leopold Infeld, 1938, 1966, 2007, 2008, p. 69.

7 A Brief History of Time Chapter 1 1988, 1996, 2001

8 A Brief History of Time Chapter 1 1988, 1996, 2001

9 From an interview with Ken Campbell on the 1995 show Reality on the Rocks: Beyond Our Ken

10 From an appearance in the Discovery Channel program “Alien Planet” (May 14, 2005)

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