Tag Archives: age of the earth

Actual Dates and 14C Dates — Michael J. Findley

creationscience graph
Please forgive the oversimplification. But radiocarbon dating, like all radiometric dating, begins with assumptions (beliefs, paradigm) and uses those beliefs as proofs of dates. Science is the accurate examination of the evidence. The evidence of radiocarbon in the remains of organism which were once alive does not produce a date. It produces a 14C:12C ratio. Then assumptions (beliefs, a paradigm) are applied to that ratio. The result is a date. But the science is only the ratio.

Regular 14N in the upper atmosphere is bombarded by cosmic rays and produces 14C, which is unstable and breaks down over time. All living organisms absorb 14C throughout their lifetime through eating and breathing. At death, the organism no longer absorbs 14C. Since 14C is unstable, it begins to break down at a steady rate. This allows us to measure the 14C:12C ratio. By applying assumptions, the end result is a date.

The group of assumptions used by Secular Humanism have a paradigm that assumes the present to be the key to the past. It assumes that formation of 14C:12C was roughly the same as 14C:12C today. Allowing for anomalies, it assumes a constant rate for 60,000 BP (Before Present) years, the maximum accurate date for 14C dating.
The flood model assumptions have a paradigm where the past is vastly different from the present. The flood changed the paradigm dramatically.

Since there are no samples to test before the flood, it is a waste of time to discuss the antediluvian condition. But we accept the standard geologic position that earlier time periods, such as what they called the Cambrian through the Jurassic, had much higher carbon levels than we have today. All of these strata were formed during the flood and represent antediluvian carbon levels.

With higher levels of 12C and 14C formed at a constant rate, the 14C:12C therefor had highly diluted levels of 14C. Therefore, any sample from this time would cause a 14C date to be much older than its actual date because of the increase in 12C, not a reduction in 14C formation.

The flood altered the 14C:12C ratio by saturating the atmosphere with volcanic aerosols laden with vast quantities of 12C. At the same time, the sluice-gates of heaven were opened. 40 days of worldwide torrential rains flushed the atmosphere of any element besides water. This included 14C. Finally, all air-breathing organisms died. The last stage of the carbon cycle, converting 14C back to 14N, did not exist.

It is important to understand that the flood paradigm assumes, just like Secular Humanism does, that 14C formation from 14N was constant throughout earth’s history. What changed, and changed greatly, was the addition of many times the regular 12C in the atmosphere compared to what we measure today. That changed the 14C:12C ratio. As the chart says, the 14C was diluted by many times the amount of 12C we measure today.
So immediately after the flood, 14C was so diluted that a sample from that time measured today would, without correcting for the additional 12C, would date to be 40,000 BP or older.

Following the blue line on the chart, the amount of 12C in the atmosphere decreased to the amount we have measured for centuries since around 600 BC.
Assuming the eruption of Thera coincided with the Exodus, then we can use it to correct 14C dates. Ussher dates the Exodus 1491 BC. 14C dates the eruption of Thera to be 1640 BC for an error of 150 years.

So 14C dates for Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylonian empire are approximately the same as Ussher’s dates. 14C dates for the Exodus, 1491 BC, are approximately 150 too old. And 14C dates for the flood are tens of thousands of years older than actual dates.

Image Credit included at the bottom of the chart


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Radiometric Dating Doesn’t Mean “Dating” — Michael J. Findley

File:Thorium decay chain from lead-212 to lead-208.svg
If someone collects a sample, brings it to a laboratory for radiometric testing and gets scientific results, the answer is a ratio of parent isotope to daughter isotope. That is it, plain and simple.
My apologies to those who follow our blog regularly, but this is a somewhat of a repeat. I believe that one of my errors is attempting to cover too much territory in one blog, so this is just one point.
We are assuming that the samples were collected properly, handled properly and tested properly. There was no falsification of the data, either intentionally or accidentally. If pieces of the same samples where taken to another reputable laboratory, we would get the same results.
The results would be the ratio of parent isotope to daughter isotope. It might be simplified 25:75 meaning twenty-five percent of the sample was the parent isotope and the remaining seventy-five percent of the sample was the daughter isotope.
With better equipment, the result might be more precise, such as 24.543:75.457. Whatever the precision of the test equipment, the final result is still a ratio. What do those ratios mean?
A simple Google search of geology.com reveals the following quote. “Certainly we all know that there were different conditions in the Precambrian, which makes up 88% of all geologic time. We know that the interior of the early Earth was much hotter than that of today, for a number of reasons. For example, heat production due to radioactive decay at 4 Ga was ~3x that of today. Other causes of early heating include heat of accretion, the Sun’s T-tauri event (beginning of H fusion), core differentiation, and the Mars-size impact events. How much hotter was the early Earth? We don’t know but we do know that there are vanishingly few rocks from the first 800 Ma of Earth’s history, as expected for a hot early Earth.”
When did Plate Tectonics begin on Earth, and what came before?
Posted by geosociety under Structural Geology and Tectonics
This quote is used because of the first four words “Certainly we know…” How is it possible to know about the Precambrian period? The other important point is that this is not an isolated comment. While I found this in geology.com., similar certainty about dating samples that are pronounced to be millions of years old can be found in genetics.com, nationalgeographics.com, nature.com, scientificamerican.com and any other mainstream science journal.
When asked, “How did you arrive at these dates?” the answer is usually, “radiometric dating”. Since, as this article started out, properly conducted radiometric tests return ratios, not dates, how do these ratios turn into dates? In other words, we are back to the question, what do these ratios mean?
All radiometric dating methods depend on radioactive decay taking place at a known, constant rate. For example, the known constant of Uranium235 to Lead is a half-life of 703.8 million years. That means, if the original sample of Uranium235 was one hundred percent, and the sample at the time of testing was 50%, then the sample would be 703.8 million years old. It would take another 703.8 million years to convert half of the remaining Uranium235 to lead. So a sample that had 25% Uranium235 and 75% lead would have gone through two half lives and would be 1407.6 million years old. It is a simple progression and easily charted. Half of the remaining 25% of the Uranium235 would be converted to lead in another 703.8 million years. So the ratio can tell you how far down the chart your sample is.
And that look-up point on the chart is the date published in the science journals. According to “Science” today, that is the end of the story. But this article is what Paul Harvey used to call “the rest of the story.”
For our example sample to actually be 1407.6 million years old, two assumptions must be true. First, the sample began as 100% Uranium235 1407.6 million years ago, without any lead. Second, nothing happened to change the rate of decay during that 1407.6 million year time period.
In answer to the uniformitarian complaint that nothing can interfere with the rate of decay, measure the radiation levels around the Bikini atolls, Nagasaki, Hiroshima, or any other high radiation site. Laboratories all over the world refine radioactive isotopes. Laboratories can also covert one material to another, such as converting uranium to plutonium.
The uniformitarian response is that such an alteration in nuclear decay rates would cause mass extinction. (Such as the flood?) Even uniformitarians admit to several mass extinctions, such as the end of the Devonian period. Mass extinctions happened and almost certainly altered global decay rates.
But the important problem to the uniformitarian is the preschool question, “Were you there?” We have no information about, nor is it possible to get, any information about the original condition of the sample.
In the beginning God created. This is the real answer. It neither requires vast amounts of time nor knowing every possible change in every possible sample. This simple answer confounds those who want the world to be millions of years old because they do not want to be responsible to a holy God.

Illustration source: Wikimedia Commons Diagram of the thorium decay chain from lead-212 to lead-208. Each parent nuclide spontaneously decays into a daughter nuclide (the decay product) via an α decay or a β− decay. Note that bismuth-212 can either decay into polonium-212 or thallium-208. The final decay product, lead-208, is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. This image was created as part of the Philip Greenspun illustration project. Date 25 August 2008
Source: Own work Author Eugene Alvin Villar (seav)

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How Could You Raise the Price on the Conflict of the Ages?

origin evil world was student 10

10 conflict 1 studentIn case you didn’t know it, we are working on a series called The Conflict of the Ages. It now has two installments:. The Scientific History of Origins, and The Origin of Evil in the World that Was. These are designed for homeschoolers  who want a better grasp of the essentials of world history from a scientific and authoritative point of view. These books fulfill state education requirements for a well-rounded historical and scientific study. They include ancient  sources outside the Bible that echo the truths of literal creation and what the world was like in ancient times. They  merge History and Science, and later will include Literature studies as well. References and supplementary information for further  study comprise more than half of each book. When we first published these, our main concern was to keep them  affordable, so we priced Teacher and Student editions at 99 cents. We have, however, gotten feedback suggesting we “up our game” by adding better organizational structure and illustrations to improve the reader’s experience. The additional material increased the file size and the 99 cent minimum price was no longer an option. We know that economic times are not improving and many families are struggling to pay for homeschool curriculum as it is. But we hope you will consider the “added value” of better organization and illustrations, and consider adding these works to your homeschool curriculum. We’d love to have homeschoolers give this series a try, and to give us your feedback. It’s designed to be in easily manageable modules, between 100-200 pages of main text each, and has Student and Teacher editions, with answer keys and teacher helps included.

These upgraded versions are available now on Smashwords, and should be ready in a few hours on Amazon.

Part One Smashwords Student Edition: https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/137138

Part One Smashwords Teacher Edition: https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/294493

Part Two Smashwords Student Edition: https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/303090

Part Two Smashwords Teacher Edition: https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/303093

Part One Amazon Student Edition: http://www.amazon.com/The-Conflict-Ages-Part-ebook/dp/B007ETAAV4

Part One Amazon Teacher Edition: http://www.amazon.com/Conflict-Ages-Part-One-ebook/dp/B00BSJRURS

Part Two Amazon Student Edition: http://www.amazon.com/Conflict-Ages-Part-Two-ebook/dp/B00C7FCRW0/

Part Two Amazon Teacher Edition: http://www.amazon.com/Conflict-Ages-Part-Two-ebook/dp/B00C7FR41E/

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origin evil world was teacher 10

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